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See what's been added to the collection in the current 1 2 3 4 5 6 weeks months years. In particular, our contribution lies in further understanding the ongoing participation of members in alternative exchange systems, such as timebanking, in relation to the goals they set.
The results of this study show that to better understand C2C exchange networks it is essential to, first, unbundle the membership from the carried-out transactions, and second to separate the two roles — recipient and donors of services — that members perform in peer-to-peer exchange networks because the goals attached to these may vary. Our findings are useful in understanding new and alternative types of markets and exchanges which have received limited attention in marketing.
The paper is structured as follows. First, TBs are further explained and previous research on timebanking is provided. Next, literature on goal theory and participation in social and political organizations is reviewed in relation to this study on timebanking. Third, the methodology employed is explained in depth.
Finally, the results of this study are presented and discussed.. TBs were created in the s in the US by the civil rights lawyer Edgar Cahn in response to the erosion of informal neighborhood networks Seyfang, There are different pillars to the philosophy of the TB paradigm Seyfang, , p. Initially, TBs were promoted as a tool to create social capital especially among the unemployed and the socially excluded e.
As several authors advocate Collom, ; Kimmel, ; Seyfang, , timebanking tries to deal with the social problems created by the current system: the erosion of the Economy of Care due to the impossibility of reaching full employment and the criminalization or denigration of non-paid jobs. Thanks to the participation in these exchange networks, TB members could acquire skills that could improve their employability, enlarge their social networks from which they could later gain support or have access to services that they could not afford otherwise..
Enlarging or improving social relations is probably the most characteristic objective of TBs.
Similar to the findings in the volunteer field e. MacNeela, , the TB study of Seyfang in the UK found that there are five main motives for joining, that go from self-centered to other centered: meeting own needs, building community capacity, improving skills, helping other people, and building social capital. Likewise, Miller's work in Japanese TBs identifies companionship as an important motive to join, especially for those leaving the workplace.
Dubois et al. Yet, previous research on collaborative consumption research also found that participants are guided by different motives. For Schor , TBs are largely motivated by the social connection encountered and the social experience. Although some studies have examined the relationship between motivation and participation, few studies have aimed to establish whether the intensity and type of participation depends on the types of personal goals sought. In a qualitative study of membership organizations, Holmes and Slater suggested a relationship between type of goal and patterns of participation.
The authors identify four broad types of goals for joining a membership organization: purposive, solidary, hobby, and material goals. Purposive goals are based on global concerns, such as promoting justice or fighting poverty. Solidary goals are related to social interaction and the establishment of social groups. Hobby goals capture the lifelong interest in the subject or site supported by the association. Finally, material goals refer to benefits of a more tangible nature, such as discounts. The authors found that hobbyists were the most active participants, but fail to offer a rationale to explain why this is the case..
Previous work on participation in TBs has implicitly assumed that, regardless of the goals of participants, they will be active in the exchange network. Participation in TBs is depicted as a political lifestyle by several authors Collom, ; Dittmer, ; Laamanen et al. These authors implicitly assume that, for the enactment of this lifestyle, members would be active in exchanges with one another to obtain services.
By exchanging outside mainstream markets, they resist neoliberal marketplace and break from the power relations inherent in the capitalist system.
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Likewise, members with social goals join the TB as they see in this alternative market an instrument to meet new people, extend their social network, be of help to their neighbors and, in short, nurture social capital by bonding and developing trust with one another Collom, ; North, Therefore, it is expected that, to meet these goals, members should exchange with one another. This rationale also suggests that members with social goals conduct greater transactions.. Yet, there is plenty of evidence to suggest otherwise. However, one of the key features of timebanking is that it is based on generalized reciprocity.
This principle makes the working of timebanking different from traditional forms of volunteerism. The aforementioned research by Collom also found that users with economic needs engaged in greater transactions.. Taking the previous discussion into account, we contend that members may join the TB in order to achieve different goals; the type of goal goal content will have a bearing on the form of engagement. Therefore, we should differentiate between goals that could be achieved by mere membership and those goals demanding transactions to be achieved..
We expect that those seeking access to services that they cannot otherwise afford will carry out more transactions.
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The same could be said about those with learning-related goals learn new things because, to achieve this goal, members must carry out transactions. In contrast, those with political and social goals may not conduct transactions, as they can achieve their goals by taking active part in the organization e. We suggest that membership may be sufficient for the enactment of the lifestyle that members with political and social goals seek to affiliate with. They show support for the values that the TB incarnates by joining and offering services.
Their commitment is symbolically realized. This symbolic saturation of motivation by mere adherence has also been suggested in the nonprofit literature. Likewise, in volunteering, Hooghe argued that passive participation serves to achieve goals, but they failed to specify what goals.. Based on the previous discussion, the guiding assumption of this study is: Members with economic and learning goals will carry out a greater number of transactions and be more active in the exchange network; members seeking to achieve political or social goals will not carry out more transactions nor will they be more active in the exchange network..
Self-administered questionnaires were sent to TB members by TB managers acted as gatekeepers: we asked for their cooperation in forwarding the questionnaire to TB members. The questionnaire consisted of six main parts and it collected information for different purposes: i questions about their participation in TB e. In regard to goals sought when joining the TB, users were presented with a list of goals and asked to recall and report which ones they were intending to achieve when they joined the TB.
The list of goals was shown in a random order to different respondents in order to avoid primacy or recency bias. The taxonomy includes intrapersonal but also interpersonal goals. Examples of intrapersonal goals are affective goals e. Enjoy myself , cognitive goals Learn new things or Be more creative and find ways to solve problems and economic goals e. Have access to services that I could not afford otherwise. Interpersonal goals comprise political goals e.
Protest against the current system, Show others to be responsible, Promote justice and equality and social goals e.yuzu-washoku.com/components/2020-09-01/2246.php
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Be an active member of the community, Be a good neighbor, Help others. The structure of the goals as belonging to the categories affective, social, economic, political and social has been empirically assessed and a principal component analysis, with five components retained, shows after Varimax rotation that goals are clustered in a quite similar way as proposed.. In total, questionnaires were returned. There are no studies that have quantified or described the universe users of TB ; yet, according to TB managers, the prototypical profile of their TB is a middle-aged, graduate woman.
This is also the most frequent profile in our sample see Table 2. Compared to total Spanish population, our sample has an overrepresentation of women, middle-aged, highly educated and members of Not for Profit Organisations.. A disadvantage of the sampling method used is the self-selection; it is likely that the most committed users will answer the questionnaire, and the uncommitted will be underrepresented. However, other sampling methods were considered e. Two main models were estimated.
The first model aims to test the first guiding assumption, that goal content influences the number of transactions in the direction specified above. To do so, the theoretical and stylized Eq. In this model, the explanatory variables are the goals sought when the person joined the TB submodel 1. Control variables include the sociodemographic features submodel 2 , and some individuals features of individual activity in the TB, as the number of services demanded and offered, and the duration of membership in the TB submodel As the dependent variable, Number of transactions can be interpreted as a discrete count variable.
Length of membership in the TB has been included as the exposure variable additionally to be included as an explanatory variable in order to control the different chances for having made transactions depending on that. Poisson regression models have been preferred to Negative binomial regression models because statistical tests have not shown any evidence against Poisson modeling i.
A second model was estimated to test the second assumption: that goal content influences activity in the exchange network in the direction specified above. To do so, a binary logit model has been specified.
The dependent variable, Activity in the research network , is measured using the answer to the question on the frequency of the last transaction as a proxy. The original variable was converted into a dichotomous variable, being 0 Never or Some time ago and 1 In the last month.
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In this case, in order to test the robustness of the results, three submodels have been also estimated: only goals submodel 1 ; goals plus sociodemographic controls submodel 2 ; and with the addition of TB activity variables submodel The variables used in each of these models were measured as follows..
Number of transactions. The dependent variable is the number of transactions done in the last year, ranging from 0 None to 6 3 per week.. Type of goals. As explained above, the most cited goals were retained for the analysis. In particular, learning, economic, intrapersonal, social and political goals were included in the model, as per the number of cites Table The number of services demanded and the number offered have been also included as complementary indicators..